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Diet & Nutrition Glossary

  • Adipose Tissue - fatty tissue
  • Albumin - protein that occurs in blood plasma
  • Amino Acids- nitrogen-containing chemical compounds of which protein is composed
  • Anemia - condition  caused by insufficient number of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or blood supply
  • Antioxidant - substance preventing damage from oxygen
  • Appetite- learned psychological reaction to food caused by pleasant memories of eating
  • Arteriosclerosis - generic term for thickened arteries
  • Atherosclerosis - a form of arteriosclerosis affecting the intima (inner lining) of the artery walls

  • Balanced Diet- one that includes all the essential nutrients in appropriate amounts
  • BIA (Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis)
  • Bland Diet - diet containing only mild-flavored foods with soft textures
  • BMI (Body Mass Index)
  • BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) - the rate at which the energy is needed for body maintenance

  • Body Fat  - Please visit link for body fat definition
  • Cachexia- severe malnutrition and body wasting caused by chronic disease
  • Caffeine - stimulant in coffee, tea and many cola drinks
  • Caloric density - energy value; number of kcals in a food
  • Calorie - also known as kcal or kilocalorie; represents the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature
    of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius (C)
  • Carbohydrate - the nutrient providing the major source of energy in the average diet 
    (For more information: Low Carbohydrate Diets )
  • Cardiovascular - pertaining to the heart and the entire circulatory system
  • Cardiovascular Disease - disease affecting heart and blood vessels
  • Cellulose - indigestible carbohydrate; provides fiber in the diet
  • Cholesterol - fat like substance that is a constituent of body cells; is synthesized in the liver; also found in animals food
  • Clear-liquid diet - diet that includes only liquids containing primarily carbohydrates and water; nutritionally inadequate
  • Complex Carbohydrates - 
  • Convenience Food - food that has been partially prepared commercially and consequently is quickly and easily prepared at home
  • Crash Diets - fad type diets intended to reduce weight very quickly; in fact they reduce water, not fat tissue
    For more information: Quick Weight Loss
  • Daily Values (DV) - represents percentage per serving of each nutritional item listed on new food labels based on daily intakes of 2,000 kcal
  • Diabetes mellitus - Chronic disease in which the body lacks the normal ability to metabolize glucose
  • Diastolic pressure- blood pressure measured when the heart is at rest
  • Dietary assessment - evaluation of food habits
  • Diet - A regulated selection of foods, as for medical reasons or cosmetic weight loss.
    For an overview: Diet, Dieting and Weight Loss Reviews 
  • Dietary fiber - indigestible part of plants; absorbs water in large intestine, helping to create soft, bulky stool; some is believed to bind cholesterol in the colon, helping to rid cholesterol from the body; some is believed to lower blood glucose levels
  • Diet Therapy -treatment of a disease through diet
  • Digestion- breakdown of food in the body in preparation of absorption
  • Diuretic - substances used to increase the amount of urine excreted
  • Diverticulosis -  intestinal disorder characterized by little pockets forming in the sides of the intestines; 
    pockets are called diverticula
  • Electrolyte - chemical compound that in water breaks up into  electrically charged atoms called ions
  • Elimination Diet - limited diet in which only certain foods are allowed; intended to find the food allergen causing reaction
  • Energy Balance - occurs when the kcal value of food ingested equals the kcal expended
  • Enriched Foods- foods to which nutrients, usually B vitamins and iron, have been added to improve their nutritional value
  • Essential Hypertension - high blood pressure with unknown cause; also called primary hypertension
  • Exchange Lists - Lists of foods with interchangeable nutrient and calorie contents; used in specific forms of diet therapy 
    ( for examples: Exchange Diets)
  • Fad Diets - currently popular weight-reducing diets; usually nutritionally inadequate and not useful or permanent methods of weight reduction
  • Fast foods - restaurant food that is ready to served before orders are taken
  • Fats - highest kcal-value nutrient
  • Fat Cell Theory- belief that fat cells have a natural drive to regain any weigh lost
  • Fatty Acids - a component of fats that determines the classification of fat
  • Fiber - indigestible, edible parts of plants
  • Food Diary -  written record of all food and drink ingested in a specified periods
  • Food Guide Pyramid - outline for making food selections based on Dietary Guidelines
  • Fortified - foods that have had vitamins and minerals added
  • Free Diets - Is a free diet cost effective, safe?
  • Gastric Bypass - surgical reduction of the stomach
  • Gestational Diabetes - diabetes occurring during pregnancy; usually disappears after the delivery of the infant
  • Glucose - the simple sugar to which carbohydrate must be broken down for absorption; also know as dextrose
  • Grams - smallest unit of measurement of weight in the metric system
  • Healthy Foods - said by food faddist to have special health-giving characteristics
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDLs) -  lipoproteins that carry cholesterol from cells to the liver for eventual excretion
  • Hunger - Physiological need for food
  • Hydrogenation - the combining of fat with hydrogen, thereby making it a saturated fat and solid at room temperature
  • Hypercholesterolemia - unusually high level of cholesterol in blood; also known as high serum cholesterol
  • Hyperglycemia - excessive amounts of sugar in the blood
  • Hyperkalemia - excessive amounts of potassium
  • Hyperlipidemia - excessive amounts of fats in the blood
  • Hypermetabolic - higher than normal rate of metabolism
  • Hypertension - higher than normal blood pressure
  • Hypoglycemia - subnormal levels of sugars in the blood
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease - chronic condition causing inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract
  • Insulin - secretion of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas gland; essential fro the proper metabolism of glucose
  • Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (type 1 or IDDM) -  Diabetes occurring suddenly between the ages of 1 and 40; patients secrete little, if any, insulin and require insulin injections and a carefully controlled diet
  • Invisible Fats - fats that are not immediately noticeable such as those in egg yolk, cheese, cream, and salad dressings
  • Ketones - substances to which fatty acids are broken down in the liver
  • Ketosis - condition in which keystones collect in the blood; caused by insufficient glucose available for energy
  • Lactase -  enzyme secreted by; the small intestine for the digestion of lactose
  • Lacto-Ovo Vegetarian - vegetarians who will eat dairy products and eggs but no meat, fish or poultry
  • Lactose - the sugar in milk; a disaccharide
  • Lacto-Vegetarian - vegetarians who eat dairy product
  • Lean Body Mass - the percentage of muscles in the tissue
  • Legumes - plant food that is grown in a pod; for example peas and beans
  • Lipid - fat
  • Lipoproteins - carriers of fat in the blood
  • Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) - carries blood cholesterol to the cells
  • Metabolism - the use of food by the body after digestion which results in energy
  • Minerals - one of many inorganic substances essential to life and classified generally as minerals
  • Monounsaturated Fat - fats that are neither saturated nor polyunsaturated and are thought to play little part in atherosclerosis
  • Natural Foods - unchanged; contain no additives
  • Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 2) - Diabetes occurring after age 40;onset is gradual and production of insulin gradually diminishes; can usually  be controlled by diet and exercise
  • Nutrients - chemical substance found in food that is necessary for good health
  • Nutrient Dense Food - foods that contain many nutrients but few calories (kcals)
  • Nutritionist - the result of those processes whereby the body takes in and uses foods for growth, development and maintenance of health
  • Obesity -  excessive body fat, 20% above average
  • Omega-3 fatty acids - Polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish oil; may contribute to the reduction of coronary artery disease
  • Organic Foods - grown without synthetic fertilizer and produced without additives
  • Osteoporosis - condition in which bones become brittle because there have been insufficient mineral deposits, especially calcium
  • Overweight - weight 10-20% above average
  • Ovo-Vegetarian - vegetarians who will eat eggs
  • Phytochemicals- substances occurring naturally in plant foods
  • Plaque - fatty deposits on the interior of artery walls
  • Polyunsaturated Fat - fats whose carbon atoms contain only limited amounts of hydrogen
  • Proteins - the only one of six essential nutrients containing nitrogen
  • RDAs - recommended dietary allowances as determined by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council
  • Registered Dietitian - a person who has graduated from college or university after completing a course of study accredited by the American Dietetic Association (ADA). 
  • Regular Diet - Normal diet, based upon the food guide pyramid
  • Saturated Fat - fats whose carbon atoms contain all of the hydrogen atoms they can;considered a contributory factor in atherosclerosis
  • Secondary diabetes mellitus - rare disease caused by certain drugs or disease of the pancreas
  • Secondary hypertension - high blood pressure caused by another condition such as kidney disease
  • Serum cholesterol - cholesterol in the blood
  • Serving Size - 
  • Set Point Theory - belief that everyone has a natural weight ("set point") at which the body is most comfortable
  • Standard Diets - basic diets used by most hospitals; can be modified texture, kcal, nutrient content
  • Stomach Banding - surgical reduction of stomach, but to lesser degree than bypass
  • Therapeutic Diets - diets used in treatment of disease
  • Trace Minerals - minerals that are essential but only in very small amounts
  • Triglycerixdes - combination of fatty acids and glycerol
  • Vegans - vegetarians that avoid all animal foods
  • Very-low-density Lipoproteins (VLDLPs) - lipoproteins made by the liver to transport lipids throughout the body
  • Visible Fats - fats in foods that are purchased and used as fats, such as butter or margarine
  • Vitamins - organic substances necessary for life although they do not, independently provide energy
  • Yo-Yo Dieting - refers to crash diets; the dieter's weight goes up and down over short periods because these diets do not change eating habits 
    F
    or more information:  Yo-Yo Diets
     

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